For a step-by-step description of the algorithm, see this tutorial.

layer_lstm(
  object,
  units,
  activation = "tanh",
  recurrent_activation = "sigmoid",
  use_bias = TRUE,
  return_sequences = FALSE,
  return_state = FALSE,
  go_backwards = FALSE,
  stateful = FALSE,
  time_major = FALSE,
  unroll = FALSE,
  kernel_initializer = "glorot_uniform",
  recurrent_initializer = "orthogonal",
  bias_initializer = "zeros",
  unit_forget_bias = TRUE,
  kernel_regularizer = NULL,
  recurrent_regularizer = NULL,
  bias_regularizer = NULL,
  activity_regularizer = NULL,
  kernel_constraint = NULL,
  recurrent_constraint = NULL,
  bias_constraint = NULL,
  dropout = 0,
  recurrent_dropout = 0,
  input_shape = NULL,
  batch_input_shape = NULL,
  batch_size = NULL,
  dtype = NULL,
  name = NULL,
  trainable = NULL,
  weights = NULL
)

Arguments

object

What to call the new Layer instance with. Typically a keras Model, another Layer, or a tf.Tensor/KerasTensor. If object is missing, the Layer instance is returned, otherwise, layer(object) is returned.

units

Positive integer, dimensionality of the output space.

activation

Activation function to use. Default: hyperbolic tangent (tanh). If you pass NULL, no activation is applied (ie. "linear" activation: a(x) = x).

recurrent_activation

Activation function to use for the recurrent step.

use_bias

Boolean, whether the layer uses a bias vector.

return_sequences

Boolean. Whether to return the last output in the output sequence, or the full sequence.

return_state

Boolean (default FALSE). Whether to return the last state in addition to the output.

go_backwards

Boolean (default FALSE). If TRUE, process the input sequence backwards and return the reversed sequence.

stateful

Boolean (default FALSE). If TRUE, the last state for each sample at index i in a batch will be used as initial state for the sample of index i in the following batch.

time_major

If True, the inputs and outputs will be in shape [timesteps, batch, feature], whereas in the False case, it will be [batch, timesteps, feature]. Using time_major = TRUE is a bit more efficient because it avoids transposes at the beginning and end of the RNN calculation. However, most TensorFlow data is batch-major, so by default this function accepts input and emits output in batch-major form.

unroll

Boolean (default FALSE). If TRUE, the network will be unrolled, else a symbolic loop will be used. Unrolling can speed-up a RNN, although it tends to be more memory-intensive. Unrolling is only suitable for short sequences.

kernel_initializer

Initializer for the kernel weights matrix, used for the linear transformation of the inputs.

recurrent_initializer

Initializer for the recurrent_kernel weights matrix, used for the linear transformation of the recurrent state.

bias_initializer

Initializer for the bias vector.

unit_forget_bias

Boolean. If TRUE, add 1 to the bias of the forget gate at initialization. Setting it to true will also force bias_initializer="zeros". This is recommended in Jozefowicz et al.

kernel_regularizer

Regularizer function applied to the kernel weights matrix.

recurrent_regularizer

Regularizer function applied to the recurrent_kernel weights matrix.

bias_regularizer

Regularizer function applied to the bias vector.

activity_regularizer

Regularizer function applied to the output of the layer (its "activation")..

kernel_constraint

Constraint function applied to the kernel weights matrix.

recurrent_constraint

Constraint function applied to the recurrent_kernel weights matrix.

bias_constraint

Constraint function applied to the bias vector.

dropout

Float between 0 and 1. Fraction of the units to drop for the linear transformation of the inputs.

recurrent_dropout

Float between 0 and 1. Fraction of the units to drop for the linear transformation of the recurrent state.

input_shape

Dimensionality of the input (integer) not including the samples axis. This argument is required when using this layer as the first layer in a model.

batch_input_shape

Shapes, including the batch size. For instance, batch_input_shape=c(10, 32) indicates that the expected input will be batches of 10 32-dimensional vectors. batch_input_shape=list(NULL, 32) indicates batches of an arbitrary number of 32-dimensional vectors.

batch_size

Fixed batch size for layer

dtype

The data type expected by the input, as a string (float32, float64, int32...)

name

An optional name string for the layer. Should be unique in a model (do not reuse the same name twice). It will be autogenerated if it isn't provided.

trainable

Whether the layer weights will be updated during training.

weights

Initial weights for layer.

Input shapes

N-D tensor with shape (batch_size, timesteps, ...), or (timesteps, batch_size, ...) when time_major = TRUE.

Output shape

  • if return_state: a list of tensors. The first tensor is the output. The remaining tensors are the last states, each with shape (batch_size, state_size), where state_size could be a high dimension tensor shape.

  • if return_sequences: N-D tensor with shape [batch_size, timesteps, output_size], where output_size could be a high dimension tensor shape, or [timesteps, batch_size, output_size] when time_major is TRUE

  • else, N-D tensor with shape [batch_size, output_size], where output_size could be a high dimension tensor shape.

Masking

This layer supports masking for input data with a variable number of timesteps. To introduce masks to your data, use layer_embedding() with the mask_zero parameter set to TRUE.

Statefulness in RNNs

You can set RNN layers to be 'stateful', which means that the states computed for the samples in one batch will be reused as initial states for the samples in the next batch. This assumes a one-to-one mapping between samples in different successive batches.

For intuition behind statefulness, there is a helpful blog post here: https://philipperemy.github.io/keras-stateful-lstm/

To enable statefulness:

  • Specify stateful = TRUE in the layer constructor.

  • Specify a fixed batch size for your model. For sequential models, pass batch_input_shape = list(...) to the first layer in your model. For functional models with 1 or more Input layers, pass batch_shape = list(...) to all the first layers in your model. This is the expected shape of your inputs including the batch size. It should be a list of integers, e.g. list(32, 10, 100). For dimensions which can vary (are not known ahead of time), use NULL in place of an integer, e.g. list(32, NULL, NULL).

  • Specify shuffle = FALSE when calling fit().

To reset the states of your model, call layer$reset_states() on either a specific layer, or on your entire model.

Initial State of RNNs

You can specify the initial state of RNN layers symbolically by calling them with the keyword argument initial_state. The value of initial_state should be a tensor or list of tensors representing the initial state of the RNN layer.

You can specify the initial state of RNN layers numerically by calling reset_states with the named argument states. The value of states should be an array or list of arrays representing the initial state of the RNN layer.

Passing external constants to RNNs

You can pass "external" constants to the cell using the constants named argument of RNN$__call__ (as well as RNN$call) method. This requires that the cell$call method accepts the same keyword argument constants. Such constants can be used to condition the cell transformation on additional static inputs (not changing over time), a.k.a. an attention mechanism.

References

See also